INTRODUCTION

History of Khanh Hoa

Khanh Hoa Province is a place rich in history and culture, there was Xom Con culture here, and it had older date before the Sa Huynh civilization. The historical - cultural heritage, the famous scenic spots ... contributed to create imposing object cultural picture on the beautiful landscape, majestic, poetic and rich in potential of Khanh Hoa.

1. Prehistoric age and Champa Kingdom

The archaeological document asserts that from prehistoric age, humans have lived in Khanh Hoa. In Hon Tre, Nha Trang Bay, the archaeologists found stone tools to demonstrate the use of hoe in agriculture. With the discovery of the Khanh Son Stone Instrument on February 1979 in Khanh Son district demonstrated that the owner of this stone instrument lived here in the middle of the first millennium BC.

The archaeological relics were discovered by Xom Con culture (Ba Ngoi, Cam Ranh) that allowed confirming the cultures the Iron Age in Khanh Hoa had the date of nearly 4,000 years and developed earlier than Sa Huynh culture. Located in the geographical distribution of Sa Huynh culture, Khanh Hoa has many archaeological relics of this culture such as: Dien Son, Binh Tan, Hon Tre, and Ninh Than.


Ponagar temple.

In early of BC, a part of Cau tribe (Kranukavamsa) – one of the two major tribes of the Champa at that time had established a small state and was named the South of Champa Kingdom (in the inscription was Panran or Panduranga). This small kingdom including two regions was Panran (nowaday are Phan Rang, Phan Thiet) and Kauthara (Today is Khanh Hoa area). In opposition to the South of Champa Kingdom was the North of Champa Kingdom in Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Binh Dinh today.

Then, passing many centuries of civil war, the kingdom of Champa was established on the basis of the unity of the two South and North Champa kingdoms. By the 8th century, the South of Champa Kingdom prevailled that led to the birth of Panduranga dynasty, the Kauthara developed at the zenith with the great and sacred temples in which the typical temple was Ponagar temple to worship the goddess mother Y Yang Po Na Gar. To date, there are many inscriptions written by Sanskrit and the old Cham scattered in Khanh Hoa province.

2. The formation of Khanh Hoa area from 1653 to August 1945:

According to historical document of our country, in the spring of the year of Snake 1653, in the process of expanding the country of Dai Viet (now Vietnamese country), the Nguyen’s Lord Nguyen Phuc Tan had ordered, the madarin Hung Loc took the land from the North shore of the Phan Rang river (Ninh Thuan province today) to Da Bia mountain Ca Pass (The boundary of two provinces Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa today).

The Lord Nguyen Phuc Tan had built Thai Khang Palace including two palaces.They were Thai Khang Palace included Tan Dinh, Quang Phuoc district in the North (Ninh Hoa town and Van Ninh today) and Dien Ninh Palace including the districts of Phuoc Dien, Hoa Chau and Vinh Xuong (Districts Dien Khanh, Cam Lam, Khanh Son, Cam Ranh city, Nha Trang city and a part of the North of Ninh Thuan province today) by Hung Loc as a cinese governor.

Thus, with the buid of Thai Khang palace and division the administrative units, the Nguyen Lord made Khanh Hoa now integrated into Dai Viet’s territory. This historical event is considered to be the beginning of the formation of the administrative area of Khanh Hoa province today.

Since then, the relaimation to build the villages of Vietnamese was increasingly intensified. The inhabitants were concentrated in the downstream of Dinh and Cai River.


 Cai River in Nha Trang

By 1690, under the Lord Nguyen Phuc Tran, Thai Khang palace was renamed to Binh Khang palace and had the name of Binh Khang palace.

In 1742, under the Lord Nguyen Phuc Khoat, Ninh Dien palace was changed to Dien Khanh palace.

In 1744, the administrative organization of Nguyen Dynasty in the South of Viet Nam was rearranged, casted molding of monarch, Lord’s residence was called palace, named the titles of Kings, changed the agencies under the Kings to 6 departments, divided the territory in the South of Viet Nam (From Danh river in Quang Binh to Ca Mau) to 12 palaces, in which Binh Khang palace included two palaces Binh Khang and Dien Khanh which took care five districts of Quang Phuoc, Tan Dinh, Phuoc Dien, Vinh Xuong, Hoa Chau.

In 1771, three Tay Son brothers raised their croops against Nguyen Lords. Just three years later, the Tay Son troops controlled the area extending from Quy Nhon to Binh Thuan. Then, Nguyen Lord was Tong Phuc Hap raised his troops to attack and regained Binh Thuan Palace and Dien Khanh residence but then Nguyen Hue troops hit and regained the two regions.

July 1793, the Lord Nguyen Phuc Anh directly commanded the great army in road and waterway from Gia Dinh to Nha Trang. From Nha Trang attacked on Dien Khanh. Tay Son army could not against, then moved to Dien Khanh and Binh Khanh. Nguyen Anh assigned people to build Dien Khanh Citadel, established boat building workshop. Then, Tay Son General was Tran Quang Dieu attracked twice times in the 1794 and in 1795 but not successful.

In 1802, after defeating the Tay Son, Nguyen Phuc Anh became a king and named the title of Gia Long. In 1803, Binh Khang palace was renamed Binh Hoa, Binh Khang residence was also renamed Binh Hoa but administrative centrer was moved from here to Dien Khanh residence (Dien Khanh Citadel today).

In the year of 7th Gia Long (1808), Nguyen dynasty conducted an administrative reform for the first time on a national scale. The palaces were changed to towns. To 1831 (the 12th year of Minh Mang), Binh Hoa town was renamed Khanh Hoa province, Binh Hoa palace also became Ninh Hoa town. At that time, Khanh Hoa province included two districts, four districts are: Dien Khanh district including 2 districts of Phuoc Dien and Vinh Xuong; Ninh Hoa town includes 2 districts: Quang Phuoc and Tan Dinh, the administrative centrer was Dien Khanh.

During the reign of Kings Thieu Tri (1841-1847) and Tu Duc (1848-1883), Khanh Hoa administrative organization had no major changes.


Dien Khanh Citadel. From: giadinh.net.vn 

3. Khanh Hoa from 1885 to August 1945:

In the Autum of the Year of Chicken 1885 the French invaded Khanh Hoa. From here until the August Revolution in 1945, under the colonial government and feudal system, border and administrative organization had changes.

Year of the Rat 1888 the King Dong Khanh gathered the lands of An Phuoc, Ninh Thuan district of Binh Thuan province and 7 communes of Tuy Phong district, 2 districts of Hoa Da to merge in Vinh Xuong district. The boundary of Khanh Hoa province was extended.

In 1901, when the Ninh Thuan administrative organization was set to Ninh Thuan, the above lands were returned to Ninh Thuan. From here, Khanh Hoa provinces had two towns and 4 districts. Dien Khanh district included 2 districts Phuoc Dien managed 5 small districts with 38 communes, hamlets; Vinh Xuong district managed 4 small districts with 45 communes, hamlets. Ninh Hoa district included 2 districts: Quang Phuoc managed 6 small districts with 83 communes, hamlets and Tan Dinh district managed 3 small districts with 73 communes, hamlets.

Under King Duy Tan (1907 – 1916), he divided a part of Vinh Xuong district to found Cam Lam district, delivered Phuoc Dien district to Dien Khanh district managed, delivered Quang Phuoc district to Ninh Hoa palace managed. Thus, Khanh Hoa province remained 2 districts and 3 districts Cam Lam, Vinh Xuong and Tan Dinh.

On January 19th 1904, the Governor of Indochina issued a decree dissolving the Cung Son administrative center of the Phu Yen province established by decree February 15th 1900. This ethnic minority’s aera with the M’Deak (Dak Lak province) were merged to Khanh Hoa province. By the year 1923, Dak Lak province was established, the above land was separated from the Khanh Hoa province, assigned Dak Lak province to manage.

In 1924, the position of Nha Trang was considered becoming increasingly important, many residents concentrated to do business. In the future, Nha Trang might develop into a political, economic, cultural center, the King Khai Dinh was issued the document on June 11th 1924 Indochina Governor approved by Decree on June 30th 1924, setting Nha Trang town. At the newly formed town, Nha Trang has 4 villages: Xuong Huan, Phuong Cau, Van Thanh and Phuong Sai. Here, there were the offices of French colonial such as: legation, chief military judge and a number of other agencies. Only the agencies governed Viet Nam court such as: Province chief, provincial judge, millitary commander were located at Dien Khanh Citadel.

In October 1931, after the National Highway 21 (now Highway 26) completed, connecting Tan Dinh district with Buon Me Thuot (Dak Lak), Tan Dinh district became prosperous, had an important position, the French colonialist government decided to rename Tan Dinh district to Ninh Hoa district (ie Ninh Hoa town today), the remaining area renamed Van Ninh district. Van Ninh name was called from here.

On June 8th 1939, Indochinese governor issued a decree to establish Ba Ngoi administrative geography.

On March 15th 1944, Emperor Bao Dai has issued imperial edict No 9 approved by the Governor General of French Indochina by the Decree on June 22nd 1944 to transfer Nha Trang town to county town. Nha Trang town had 5 wards: Xuong Huan (the first Ward), Phuong Cau (the second ward), Van Thanh (the third ward), Phuong Sai (the fourth Ward), and Phuoc Hai (the fifth ward).


Nha Trang suburb. Photo: Vu Ngoc Hoang. 

4. Khanh Hoa from 1945 until now:

On March 9th 1945, the Japanese toppled the France, assigned Khanh Hoa province to Vietnamese mandarins to manage, provincial administrative offices moved to Nha Trang. Since then, Nha Trang officially became the administrative centre of Khanh Hoa province.

In Autumn of 1945 the August Revolution succeeded, Khanh Hoa belonged to revolutionary government of Vietnam Democratic Republic. But just over two months later, the end of French colonialism, American imperialism returned to conquer Khanh Hoa. Khanh Hoa people stood up to against the French and American over 30 years uninterrupted. During that time, administrative geography of Khanh Hoa province had changed to fit the situation...

In 1955, under the Republic of Vietnam, Khanh Hoa province was reorganized in all respects. The districts, towns were changed to the urban districts. The villages changed to communes. In May 1959, both districts Krang Ying and Krang Hinh of Dak Lak province were merged into Khanh Hoa province and built Khanh Duong urban district. In April 1960, 12 hamlets of Cam Lam district were seperated from Khanh Hoa to merge Du Long urban district, Ninh Thuan province. In October 1965, an area of Cam Lam in Southern was seperated to set up Cam Ranh town under the central (especially area of Cam Ranh).

On the first, second and third of April 1975, the Liberation Army of South Vietnam respectively took over Ninh Hoa, Nha Trang and Cam Ranh. The transfer of government took place in peace because most army of Republic of Vietnam withdrew Phan Rang defence line.

After the victory in spring 1975, November 1975, the two provinces of Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa merged into Phu Khanh province. In 1977, the Nha Trang town was upgraded to Nha Trang city, Cam Ranh town was merged into Cam Lam district became Cam Ranh district.

On December 28th 1982, VII National Assembly, 4th session, decided to merge the Spratly district into Phu Khanh province. On June 30th 1989, the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Session VIII (The fifth session) separated Phu Khanh province to two provinces of Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa.

On April 22nd 1999, Nha Trang city was recognized as the second – level town in Khanh Hoa province

On July 7th 2000, Cam Ranh district was upgraded to Cam Ranh Town.

On April 11th 2007, the Government issued Decree No. 65/2007/ND-CP on the adjustment of administrative boundaries of some districts, towns and communes in Khanh Hoa province to establish new Cam Lam district and some new communes, towns. At Spratly district established Spratly town on the basis of the Big Spratly Island and the islands, rocks, vicinity beaches; establishing Song Tu Tay commune on the basis of Song Tu Tay Island and the islands, rocks, beach vicinity; Establishing Sinh Ton commune on the basis of Sinh Ton Island and the islands, rocks, vicinity beaches.

 On April 22nd 2009, Nha Trang city was recognized as the first level town under Khanh Hoa province

On October 26th 2010, the Government decided to establish the town of Ninh Hoa under Khanh Hoa province on the basis of entire 119, 777 hectares of natural area and 233,558 inhabitants of the old Ninh Hoa district.

On December 23rd 2010, Cam Ranh town was officially recognized as a city under Khanh Hoa province.

Regarding to the current administrative organization, Khanh Hoa has 2 cities are Nha Trang and Cam Ranh, 1 town Ninh Hoa and 6 districts of Dien Khanh, Khanh Vinh and Khanh Son, Cam Lam, Van Ninh and Truong Sa island district.

MY HAU

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